Ooze of bacterial wetwood on Scotch or wych elm (Ulmus glabra)
Mike Schomaker, Colorado State Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Discoloration on trunk of Amur cork tree (Phellodendron amurense) caused by bacterial wetwood
Discoloration on trunk of elm (Ulmus) caused by bacterial wetwood
Bacterial wetwood, also known as slime flux, is caused by an infection of one or more of several bacteria. It results in a water-soaked, oozing, or bleeding condition of the wood, which occurs in the trunk, branches, and roots of shade and ornamental trees. It is normally not serious in most trees but is a chronic disease, which causes concern and can contribute to a general decline in tree vigor over time. Trees most susceptible to the disease include elms, apple, crabapple, London plane, redbud, aspen, dogwood, magnolia, Russian olive, beech, fir, maple, sour gum, birches, hemlock, mountain ash, sycamore, boxelder, hickory, mulberry, sweet gum, butternut, horse chestnut, oaks, tulip tree, cottonwood, linden, pines, black locust, poplar, willow and walnut.
Symptoms and Diagnosis
Symptoms vary with geographical location suggesting that the environment influences disease development. Trees in the western United States show more variability in internal disease development with much less bleeding and symptom expression than trees in the East and Midwest. Wetwood appears internally in the trunk and large limbs as a dark brown-black water-soaked area when the area is sectioned. The first external sign of wetwood is usually bubbling and seepage from wounded tissue in V-shaped branch crotches, wounds made by the removal of branches, injection holes, and trunk cracks. Insects are often attracted to the ooze on which they feed but there is not any evidence that these insects cause damage or transmit the bacteria. It is believed that some wood-boring insects such as beetles may transmit the disease.
Organisms, most commonly bacteria, infect the tree deep in the tissue and start a process of fermentation. The resulting pressure (up to 60 psi) forces the bacterial ooze out cracks, branch stubs, and pruning cuts. This ooze discolors bark, kills the cambium near the cut preventing proper callusing of wounds, and kills grass and other plants on which it drips. Bacterial wetwood is noticed externally when it exudes slime and leaves a stain on the bark. Wilting of foliage is common in young trees; old trees are more likely to develop a general decline in vigor or branch dieback in the upper crown.
Integrated Pest Management Strategies
1. There is no cure or preventive treatment to avoid infection and development of bacterial wetwood. The following strategies may help.
2. Fertilization. Fertilize stressed trees to stimulate vigorous growth and lessen the severity of the disease but refrain from over-fertilizing healthy vigorous trees as this may increase their susceptibility to the disorder.
3. Pruning. Remove any dead and weak branches. Promptly remove any loose or diseased bark around the area and make a clean cut around wounds to facilitate healing. It is advised to disinfect tools with 70% rubbing alcohol before pruning a tree.
Inserting a drainage tube to drain the area is not recommended. Insertion of a drainage tube can spread the disease and result in more harm than good.
Strategy 3 is an organic approach. Strategy 2 could be considered an organic approach if an organic tree fertilizer is used.