Grow in moist, well-drained loams in full sun. Grows well in sandy soils, but is also somewhat tolerant of clays. Avoid poorly-drained wet soils. Plants prefer cool summer climates. Plants are generally tolerant of urban conditions. Prune annually in late winter to retain compact size. Unpruned plants may outgrow designated planting spaces as they mature.
Pruning is usually not necessary for this cultivar.
Pinus mugo, commonly called mugo pine or Swiss mountain pine, is a variable species that is most often seen as a bushy, multi-stemmed shrub or broad-rounded small tree to 15-20’ tall. Mature plants typically exhibit a dense habit, usually growing wider than tall. Mugo pine is also seen in more prostrate forms as well as in taller trees that will grow to as much as 80’. It is native to the mountains of central and southern Europe from Spain to the Balkans. It features bright green needles (to 1-3” long) in bundles of two, oval to conical dull brown female cones (to 2 1/2” long) and scaly brown-gray bark.
Genus name comes from the Latin name for pines.
Mugo is reportedly an ancient Tyrolean name with an unknown definition.
‘Valley Cushion’ is a dwarf cultivar with a globose form that typically matures to only 2-3’ tall and as wide over the first 10 years, but is very slow-growing (2-3” per year) and is commonly seen as a 1-2’ tall plant. Features unusually short, medium green needles (to 1” long).
Pines are generally difficult to grow well in the St. Louis area because of soil and climate. Mugo pine is susceptible to tip blight, rusts and rots. Pine needle scale and sawflies can be serious problems in some areas. Moths and borers may appear.
A dwarf evergreen for foundation plantings and rock gardens. Prized bonsai plant.