Pinus thunbergii
Common Name: Japanese black pine 
Type: Needled evergreen
Family: Pinaceae
Native Range: Coastal Japan, South Korea
Zone: 5 to 8
Height: 20.00 to 60.00 feet
Spread: 12.00 to 20.00 feet
Bloom Time: Non-flowering
Bloom Description: Non-flowering
Sun: Full sun
Water: Medium
Maintenance: Medium
Leaf: Evergreen
Tolerate: Deer


Grow in fertile, medium moisture, well-drained soils in full sun. Tolerates some light afternoon shade and some drought. Salt tolerant.

Noteworthy Characteristics

Pinus thunbergii commonly known as Japanese black pine, is noted for its whitish terminal buds that provide interesting contrast with its dark green foliage. In optimum growing conditions, this tree will grow in a generally conical form to 100’ tall, spreading somewhat irregularly with age. In cultivation, it is more often seen in the 20-60’ tall range. Needles (to 4.5” long) in bundles of two are an attractive dark green. Young foliage candles are upright.

Genus name comes from the Latin name for pines.

Specific epithet honors Carl Peter Thunberg, 18-19th century Sweedish physician.


Healthy, well-maintained trees in optimum growing conditions have few major problems. Potential diseases include Diplodia tip blight, rusts, cankers, twig/needle blight and leaf cast. Potential insect pests include pinewood nematodes, caterpillars, miners, sawfly, scale, mealybugs, borers and weevils. These pines may struggle in the St. Louis area where environmental conditions do not favor most conifers.


Good specimen pine. Also may be grown as bonsai.