Common Name: Canadian hemlock
Type: Needled evergreen
Zone: 4 to 7
Height: 2.00 to 3.00 feet
Spread: 3.00 to 4.00 feet
Bloom Time: Non-flowering
Bloom Description: Non-flowering
Sun: Part shade to full shade
Other: Winter Interest
Tolerate: Deer, Heavy Shade, Black Walnut
Grow in average, medium moisture, well-drained soils in part shade to full shade. Site in locations protected from hot afternoon sun. Prefers cool, moist conditions in part shade. Intolerant of drought and should be watered regularly in prolonged dry spells, particularly when plants are young.
Canadian or eastern hemlock is a dense, pyramidal conifer that is native from eastern Canada south to Maine and Wisconsin and further south in the Appalachian Mountains to Georgia and Alabama. It is typically found in moist woods, wooded ravines, stream valleys, moist slopes and rocky hillsides/ridges. It grows to 75’ tall in the wild. Flat sprays of lacy evergreen foliage give this tree a graceful form. Dark green needles (to 9/16" long) with two white bands beneath are arranged in two rows. Needles are attached to twigs by slender stalks. Bark is red-brown to gray-brown. Small, pendant, short-stalked, seed-bearing cones (to 1" long) are tan-brown. ‘Jeddeloh’ grows as a dwarf, flat-topped, spreading mound with a distinctive funnelform center depression that resembles a bird's nest. It typically matures to 15" tall and 20" wide during the first 10 years, eventually maturing over time to 2-3' tall and to 3-4' wide. Bright green needles (to 1/2" long) are spirally arranged along the stems. Pendulous branch tips. Small cones (to 1/2") may appear on established plants. Discovered at Jeddeloh Nursery in Oldenburg, Germany in 1950.
A healthy plant in the proper environment has few problems. Potential disease problems for plants in the genus Tsuga include needle blight (needles turn yellow and die), canker, rusts and rots. Potential insect problems include bagworms, borers, leaf miner, saw fly and spider mites. Foliage may scorch in very hot weather. Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is an aphid-like bug that was introduced from Asia into the eastern U. S. near Richmond, Virginia in 1951. Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) and Tsuga caroliniana (Carolina hemlock) are both susceptible to incurring significant damage or death from infestation. Since the 1950s, HWA has spread from Georgia to Maine and as far west as eastern Kentucky and eastern Tennessee. It is particularly troublesome in parts of the Northeast where planting eastern or Carolina hemlocks is not now recommended in a number of areas.
Small evergreen conifer with variegated foliage for shady areas. Rock gardens. Foundations.