Common Name: winterberry
Type: Deciduous shrub
Zone: 3 to 9
Height: 3.00 to 6.00 feet
Spread: 4.00 to 8.00 feet
Bloom Time: June to July
Bloom Description: Dull white
Sun: Full sun to part shade
Water: Medium to wet
Suggested Use: Hedge, Rain Garden
Tolerate: Erosion, Clay Soil, Wet Soil, Air Pollution
Easily grown in average, acidic, medium to wet soils in full sun to part shade. Adaptable to both light and heavy soils, but prefers moist, acidic, organic loams. Good tolerance for poorly drained soils including wet boggy or swampy conditions (this species is native to swampy areas of Eastern North America). Winterberries are dioecious (separate male and female plants). Only fertilized female flowers will produce the attractive red berries that are the signature of the species. Generally one male winterberry will be sufficient for pollinating 6-10 female plants. Flowers appear on new growth. Prune to shape in early spring just before new growth appears.
'Jim Dandy' is a male plant and is generally grown only as a pollinator for certain female winterberry cultivars (e.g., I. verticillata 'Red Sprite'). One 'Jim Dandy' will generally be sufficient for pollinating 9-10 female plants. Prune to shape in early spring just before new growth begins.
Ilex verticillata, commonly called winterberry, is a deciduous holly that is native to eastern North America where it typically occurs in swamps, damp thickets, low woods and along ponds and streams. The form of this plant found in Missouri is Ilex verticillata var. padifolia, which occurs in “shut-ins”, granite rocky stream beds and sandstone bluffs in only 4 counties in the southeastern part of the state (Steyermark). This is a slow-growing, deciduous shrub with an upright-rounded habit that typically grows 3-12’ tall. In the wild, it often suckers to form large thickets or colonies. Elliptic to obovate, toothed, dark green leaves (2-3” long). Fall color is usually negligible, but in some years leaves may turn attractive shades of maroon. Relatively inconspicuous greenish-white flowers appear in the leaf axils in late spring. Flowers, if properly pollinated, give way to a crop of bright red berries (1/4” diameter) in late summer to fall. Berries are quite showy and will persist throughout the winter (hence the common name) and often into early spring. Berries provide considerable impact and interest to the winter landscape.
Genus name comes from the Latin name Quercus ilex for holm oak in reference to the foliage similarities (holm oak and many of the shrubs in the genus Ilex have evergreen leaves).
Specific epithet from Latin means whorled in reference to the arrangement of sessile fruits in pseudo-whorls around the stems.
Common name comes form the quite showy berries that will persist throughout the winter and often into early spring.
'Jim Dandy is a dwarf, male cultivar with an upright, rounded habit. It is a slow-growing shrub which typically grows 3-6' (less frequently to 8') tall. Glossy dark green leaves turn a somewhat undistinguished purplish green to yellow in autumn. The whitish flowers are relatively inconspicuous, but appear over an extended bloom period, making it a good pollinator for other winterberries. Female winterberries, as the common name suggests, produce profuse red berries which often persist throughout the winter unless consumed by local bird populations.
No serious insect or disease problems. Occasional disease problems include leaf spots and powdery mildew. Plants do poorly in neutral to alkaline soils where they are susceptible to chlorosis (yellowing of leaves) and often die.
This non-fruiting, male winterberry is primarily used as a pollinator.