Common Name: wood lily
Type: Herbaceous perennial
Native Range: Northeastern United States
Zone: 4 to 8
Height: 0.50 to 1.00 feet
Spread: 0.50 to 1.00 feet
Bloom Time: April to May
Bloom Description: Maroon to brownish purple to dark red
Sun: Part shade to full shade
Flower: Showy, Fragrant
Easily grown in rich, humusy, medium moisture, well-drained soil in part shade to full shade. Needs regular watering. Rhizomatous plant that is difficult to propagate from seed.
The trillium is a simple, graceful perennial that is one of the most familiar and beloved of the spring woodland wildflowers. Leaves, petals and sepals of all trilliums come in groups of three. This species, sometimes commonly called toad trillium, is a Missouri native that grows up to 12" high. An unbranched, naked stem is topped by three, evenly-spaced, sessile, ovate, dark green, hosta-like leaves (up to 4" long) that are mottled with purple or white. The flower (2" high) features three erect petals of variable color (maroon to brownish purple to dark red) and appears stalkless atop the center of the three-leaf whorl. Flowers have a musky fragrance. A clump-forming plant with stems arising from thick, underground rhizomes which will spread slowly if left undisturbed. Foliage will usually die to the ground by mid-summer, particularly if the soil is allowed to dry out.
No serious insect or disease problems. This flower does not transplant well and should not be dug in the wild.
A classic spring-blooming, woodland wildflower. Excellent when massed in a shaded woodland garden, naturalized area or wildflower garden. Mixes well with other spring wildflowers and ferns. Not recommended for the perennial border.