Pinus resinosa
Common Name: red pine 
Type: Needled evergreen
Family: Pinaceae
Native Range: Eastern North America
Zone: 2 to 5
Height: 50.00 to 80.00 feet
Spread: 20.00 to 25.00 feet
Bloom Time: Non-flowering
Bloom Description: Non-flowering
Sun: Full sun
Water: Medium
Maintenance: Low
Leaf: Evergreen
Other: Winter Interest
Tolerate: Deer, Drought


Grow in average, medium moisture, well-drained sandy loams in full sun. Very little tolerance for shade. Best growth is in geographic areas with cool summers and cold winters. Tolerates a wide variety of soils. Somewhat intolerant of urban pollution.

Noteworthy Characteristics

Pinus resinosa, commonly called red pine, is a conical, straight-trunked, evergreen conifer with horizontal to ascending branching and an oval to rounded crown. It typically grows to 50-80’ (less frequently to 125') tall. It is native from Newfoundland to Manitoba south to Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Pennsylvania and New York. It is typically found on hills, slopes, ridges and plains, often in sandy soils. Common name of red pine is in reference to the tree's bark which is red tinged from crown to base. Sharply-pointed, yellow-green to dark green needles (4-6" long) in bundles of two are soft but brittle (snap crisply when bent). Ovoid female seed cones (to 2 1/2" long) mature to chestnut brown in the second year. Cone scales lack prickles. This is the State Tree of Minnesota where it is commonly known as Norway pine. Red pine has been commercially used for pulpwood and structural timber.

Genus name comes from the Latin name for pines.

Specific epithet means resinous.


In cool summer climates, healthy, well-maintained trees usually have few major problems. These trees often struggle in the St. Louis area where hot summers, soils and general environmental conditions do not favor most pines. Needle cast, needle blight, bark canker, root rots and rusts may occur. In some areas, budworm is the most significant insect pest. Other insect pests include sawflies, pine beetles, pine gall weevil, tussock moth and pine needle miner.


Generally not recommended for specimen or ornamental purposes in the St. Louis area because it does not grow well in areas with hot and humid summer conditions. It is not currently recommended for landscape planting south of USDA Zone 5.