Arnoglossum reniforme

Species Native to Missouri
Common Name: great Indian plantain 
Type: Herbaceous perennial
Family: Asteraceae
Native Range: Eastern United States
Zone: 3 to 8
Height: 3.00 to 9.00 feet
Spread: 2.00 to 4.00 feet
Bloom Time: May to September
Bloom Description: Whitish
Sun: Full sun to part shade
Water: Medium
Maintenance: Low
Suggested Use: Naturalize
Flower: Showy


Easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Prefers neutral to limey soils. Freely self-seeds. If grown from seed, large basal leaves will appear the first year, but flower stems may not appear until the second or third year.

Noteworthy Characteristics

Arnoglossum reniforme, commonly called great Indian plantain, is a tall Missouri native herbaceous perennial which typically occurs in woods and on wooded slopes, often in calcareous soils, in the southern, central and eastern parts of the State. This is a large, substantial plant which typically grows 3-6' tall (sometimes to 9'). Features small, whitish, tubular flowers arranged in flat-topped clusters (corymbs) atop stiff stems which usually do not need staking. Flowers bloom from mid-spring to late summer. Toothed, semicircular to kidney-shaped green leaves.

Formerly known as Cacalia muehlenbergii.

Specific epithet means kidney-shaped.


No serious insect or disease problems.


Naturalizes well in woodland, wild, cottage or native plant gardens. Plant height and substance make this an interesting selection for grouping in border backgrounds, though the plant is generally not considered to possess sufficient ornamental qualities to warrant a prominent place in the border. Uncommonly sold by nurseries.