Gymnocladus dioicus

Species Native to Missouri
Common Name: Kentucky coffee tree 
Type: Tree
Family: Fabaceae
Native Range: Central and eastern United States to Ontario and Quebec, Canada
Zone: 3 to 8
Height: 60.00 to 80.00 feet
Spread: 40.00 to 55.00 feet
Bloom Time: May to June
Bloom Description: Greenish-white
Sun: Full sun
Water: Medium
Maintenance: Low
Suggested Use: Shade Tree, Rain Garden
Flower: Showy, Fragrant
Fruit: Showy
Other: Winter Interest
Tolerate: Drought, Air Pollution


Best grown in moist, organically rich, well-drained soils in full sun. Tolerates poorer soils and drought. Avoid heavy clays however. Also adapts well to urban conditions. Suckers to form colonies in the wild.

Noteworthy Characteristics

Gymnocladus dioicus, commonly called Kentucky coffeetree or coffeetree, is a tall deciduous tree with rough, scaly gray-brown bark and large bipinnate compound leaves. It is native to the Midwest, primarily southern Michigan and Ohio southwest to Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma and Arkansas. It grows 60-80’ (less frequently to100’) tall with an irregular open oval to obovate crown. In Missouri, it typically occurs in low or rich woods, bluff bases and along streams (Steyermark). Large leaves to 3’ long, divided into 3-7 pairs of pinnae, with individual leaflets (1-3” long). Leaflets are blue-green in summer, turning an undistinguished yellow in fall. Larger trees typically cast light shade. As the specific epithet suggests, the species is dioecious (separate male and female trees). Greenish white flowers appear in late spring (May-June). Male flowers in clusters to 4” long. Female flowers in panicles to 12” long. Female flowers are fragrant. Fertilized female flowers give way to flattened reddish brown pods (to 10”long) which ripen in October and persist well into winter. Native Americans and early American settlers, especially those in the Kentucky territory, roasted and ground the seeds to brew a coffee-like beverage (albeit no caffeine), hence the common name. Native Americans roasted the seeds for food. Seeds are very toxic prior to roasting, and should never be eaten fresh off the tree. Trees are late to leaf out in spring and are one of the first to drop leaves in the fall.

Genus name come from gumnos meaning naked and klados meaning branch as the tree is bare of leaves for many months.

Specific epithet means dioecious, having separate male and female plants.


No serious insect or disease problems. Leaves and seedpods can create litter problems.


Good landscape tree for large lawns and parks. Male trees are generally considered more desirable because of the lack of seedpods. However, mature female trees with hanging seedpods can be very attractive in outline against a winter sky.